Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare, inherited disorder that affects the body’s ability to fight infection. The chronic granulomatous disease occurs when the white blood cells, called neutrophils, do not work properly. As a result, people with Chronic granulomatous disease are at risk for repeated and serious infections.
What is chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)?
The chronic granulomatous disease is a rare, inherited disorder that affects the body’s ability to fight infection. It is caused by a defect in the gene that helps produce white blood cells called neutrophils. These cells are important for fighting infection. People with Chronic granulomatous disease have difficulty killing bacteria and other organisms inside their bodies. This can lead to several health problems, including repeated infections, inflammation, and tissue damage.
What are the symptoms of Chronic granulomatous disease?
The symptoms of Chronic granulomatous disease can vary from person to person. They may include:
* Recurrent infections: People with Chronic granulomatous disease are prone to bacterial and fungal infections. These infections can occur anywhere in the body but are most common in the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.
* Inflammation: This can cause a range of symptoms, depending on which organs are affected. For example, inflammation of the lungs (pulmonary) can cause shortness of breath, while inflammation of the digestive system (gastrointestinal) can cause diarrhea.
* Tissue damage: Over time, the repeated infections and inflammation associated with Chronic granulomatous disease can lead to tissue damage. This can cause several symptoms, depending on which organs are affected. For example, damage to the lungs can cause coughing and difficulty breathing, while damage to the digestive system can cause abdominal pain and vomiting.
How is Chronic granulomatous disease diagnosed?
The chronic granulomatous disease is usually diagnosed in childhood, although it can sometimes be diagnosed in adults. The diagnosis is typically based on a combination of clinical features (symptoms and medical history) and laboratory tests.
One of the most important laboratory tests used to diagnose Chronic granulomatous disease is the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test. This test measures the activity of neutrophils. People with Chronic granulomatous disease have abnormally low levels of NBT activity.
Other laboratory tests that may be used to diagnose Chronic granulomatous disease include:
* White blood cell count: This measures the number of white blood cells in the blood. People with Chronic granulomatous disease usually have an abnormally low white blood cell count.
* Blood culture: This test is used to identify bacteria or fungi in the blood. It may be positive in people with Chronic granulomatous disease who have active infections.
* Chest x-ray: This imaging test may be used to look for signs of pulmonary (lung) inflammation or infection.
What are the treatments for Chronic granulomatous disease?
There is no cure for Chronic granulomatous disease, but there are treatments that can help manage the condition and reduce the risk of serious health problems.
The main treatment for Chronic granulomatous disease is prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics. These are taken daily to help prevent infections. In some cases, it may also be necessary to take antifungal medications.
In addition, people with Chronic granulomatous disease should avoid contact with known sources of infection, such as sick people or animals. It is also important to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands regularly and avoiding touching your face.
People with Chronic granulomatous disease who develop infections may need to be hospitalized and treated with intravenous (IV) antibiotics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue.
What is the long-term outlook for people with Chronic granulomatous disease?
The long-term outlook for people with Chronic granulomatous disease has improved in recent years due to advances in treatment. However, Chronic granulomatous disease is a lifelong condition that can cause serious health problems. People with Chronic granulomatous disease are at risk of developing chronic infections, inflammation, and tissue damage. These complications can be life-threatening.
With early diagnosis and proper treatment, most people with Chronic granulomatous disease can expect to live into adulthood. However, the life expectancy for people with Chronic granulomatous disease is still lower than that of the general population.
The chronic granulomatous disease is a rare, chronic disorder that affects the body’s ability to fight infection. It can cause fever, night sweats, and weight loss. There is no cure for Chronic granulomatous disease and treatment focuses on managing symptoms. Supportive therapies such as antibiotics, immunoglobulin therapy, and bone marrow transplants may be necessary to improve the quality of life for people with Chronic granulomatous disease.